The Development of logical thinking of preschool children
No one doubts the importance of the thinking process in a person’s life. The ability to quickly and effectively solve its tasks depends on the success of his studies, career, social status. No part of the activities for the successful implementation of which require thinking.
In the study of thinking, particular attention is paid to the dynamics of development of the thinking process; age features; factors influencing development; individual differences in thinking.
Thinking is a higher cognitive process active form of artistic reflection and transformation of human reality. The difference of thinking from other cognitive processes is that it is almost always associated with the presence of a problem situation, the problem that needs solving, and actively changing the environment in which this task is assigned.
Verbal-logical thinking is one of the types of thinking, which is associated with speech. The other two: clearly-effective and visual-figurative – are implemented through actions and images. Verbal-logical thinking is characterized by the use of judgment and reasoning.
Age 5-8 years – very responsible in the development of verbal-logical thinking. In order to teach the child to think and reason correctly, i.e. according to the rules we must know and apply the rules of logic.
Educators and parents should not underestimate the ability of preschool children to solve the proposed task. The rate of information processing in children faster than in adults. Children have a greater ability to correlate the words with the images that these words refer. But are inferior to adults in sustained attention, the ability to concentrate on solving problems.
Educators need not theoretical logic and application logic, as logical thinking. Practical logic necessary to control the correctness of reasoning. Arguments are in the form of texts. The text conveys information. You have to know what the role of the logical processing of information and logical conclusions from it.
Teaching your child logical thinking, we are at the beginning of training use not artificial, but a natural logical language, the core language of thinking, then move gradually to the development of symbolic logic. Children with General speech underdevelopment need constant signification of events and phenomena. For example:
– Why summer can’t ski?
– Why hare hard to see in the snow?
– Is it possible with two balls to put each other? Then what will happen?
– From the tower to remove the bottom of the cube?
No going outside, to know there is wind?
This kind of work, we are in the process of all secret moments. It is important to teach children to think about what they see around, what they learn from TV movies, short stories, fairy tales. First, ask a leading question, give impetus to thoughts, then interviewed other children, find out who is responsible for the rights, and only then explain yourself.
An important exercise is the comparison, identifying differences in common and similar in different. For example:
– What is the difference between a doll and a girl?
– What is the difference between a bird and a plane?
– What is the difference between a Bush and a tree?
– What do tree and flower?
– What do the tree and the nest?
– What is common between a ball and an Apple?
A useful exercise is a quiz, not only folk and copyright, but also compiled by pupils. For example:
– Short front legs and long rear (hare).
Four feet, not walking (table, chair).
A more difficult exercise – Proverbs and sayings. First, give 2-3 options from which children select are appropriate. For example: “Not in my sled, don’t sit down”.
Options explanation: don’t sit on a broken chair; don’t start anything that can’t perform or boy doesn’t know how to play, and sat down at the piano. Naturally, the children learned to understand and explain the meaning of Proverbs and sayings, we on every occasion of their use, for example, after the children have worked on the plot, gathered dry leaves and twigs, we say: “put the berry – will gain a pound or grain to a Grain – bag will be”.
The kids love exercise, to wit:
– On the table is four apples. One of them cut in half and laid there, how many apples are on the table?
– Burned three candles, one died, how many candles are left?
– The girl – her brother – two, what will be the difference in age they have in five years?
– Each branch got pears, how many of them will be on five birch branches?
Tasks are easily seen and remembered, they clothed not only in specifically-shaped, but in verse form.
Put mom in oven Yes another pie
Pies with cabbage oven. The cat under the bench dragged away.
For Natasha, Koli, Vova, If you can help:
On the shells look, Answer quickly:
Two eggs in the nest, How many chickens will be
I hen lie. At my hen?
The boy was walking in the woods Seven geese set off
And mushrooms have lumped the Two decided to rest
Under Kostochka – five, How many of them are under the clouds?
Under the birch – five Armillaria, Count the children themselves.
And four – under aspen.
How many will be in their shopping cart?
Arithmetic is often combined with the geometry. The children are asked to lay on the table of the five sticks two triangles; build six sticks of four triangles.
Classes are animated role-playing games such scenarios as “At the circus”, “Flight to Mars” etc.
All these exercises help to develop children’s logical thinking. Mathematics occupies a very important place in the system of preschool education. It hones the mind of the child develops flexible thinking, teaches logic.